Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Calculate how much your water habit costs~


The real cost of bottled water

from an article in 'The Age' 2007


AUSTRALIA'S love affair with bottled water is costing the planet 314,000 barrels of oil a year.
That's how much of one of the world's most precious resources it takes to package, ship and refrigerate a product that is already piped to every single suburban premises for next to nothing, according toSunday Age calculations.
"It's one of the greatest cons ever pulled," says Clean Up Australia chairman Ian Kiernan. "It's just lunacy, there is no other word for it. We are squandering our oil resources."
Oil is not the only precious resource being squandered by consumers, with bottled water 2500 times more expensive than the tap variety.
"Drinking water in Melbourne or Sydney costs around $1.20 a tonne," says Mr Kiernan. "Australian bottled water costs around $3000 a tonne. And Italian bottled water? About $9000 a tonne.
"It's more expensive than petrol — if you could turn petrol into water you could make money."
According to the Australasian Bottled Water Institute, we spend about $385 million a year on bottled water.
Peter Gleick, president of the California-based Pacific Institute, which provides independent research and policy analysis on issues of development and the environment, recently calculated that demand for bottled water in the United States was burning up at least 17 million barrels of oil a year.
"And that's just the energy required to make the plastic resin and make it into bottles. It doesn't include the energy needed to get the bottled water to your local store," Dr Gleick says.
He estimates that the total amount of energy required for every bottle of water is equivalent, on average, to filling a quarter of a plastic bottle with crude oil.
"There are some situations where it might be OK to buy a bottle of water, but I don't think consumers are fully aware of the economic and environmental impact of what it takes to produce a bottle of water," he says.
"Especially when pure, clean drinking water is available, literally, on tap."
With no chlorine added to kill bacteria and no fluoride to strengthen teeth, bottled water can't even be considered better for you.
Federal Environment Minister Malcolm Turnbull is urging consumers to think more carefully about their purchases.
"We must be thoughtful all of the time," Mr Turnbull says. "And we must encourage people to think about the way they use all our resources."
Mr Turnbull says the waste of resources used to get bottled water to the shop also highlights the need for a carbon price.

Monday, December 6, 2010

"Dangerous enough - EU acts on problem chemicals in plastic bottles"


 EU bans bisphenol A chemical from babies' bottles

From an article at BBC News

File photo of nine-month-old boy drinking from a bottle

Related stories

The European Commission has announced a ban on the use of bisphenol A (BPA) in plastic baby bottles from next year.
The commission cited fears that the compound could affect development and immune response in young children.
There has been concern over the use of BPA for some time, with six US manufacturers removing it in 2009 from bottles they sold in the US, although not other markets.
But a UK expert said he thought the move was "an over-reaction".
BPA is widely used in making hard, clear plastic and is commonly found in food and drink containers.
A European Commission spokesman said the proposal had been approved after being presented to a committee of national government experts on Thursday - months earlier than scheduled - and approved.
The European parliament had called for the ban in June.
Areas of uncertainty
John Dalli, Commissioner in charge of Health and Consumer Policy, said the ban was good news for European parents.

Start Quote

I would be happy for a baby of mine to be fed from a polycarbonate bottle containing bisphenol A”
Professor Richard Sharpe,University of Edinburgh
"There were areas of uncertainty, deriving from new studies, which showed that BPA might have an effect on development, immune response and tumour promotion," Mr Dalli said in a statement.
EU states will outlaw the manufacture of polycarbonate feeding bottles containing the compound from March 2011, and ban their import and sale from June 2011, the Commission said.
But Professor Richard Sharpe, of the Medical Research Council's Human Reproductive Sciences Unit at the University of Edinburgh, said the commission's decision must have been made on political, rather than scientific, grounds.
"I do not know of any convincing evidence that bisphenol A exposure, in the amounts used in polycarbonate bottles, can cause any harm to babies as not only are the amounts so minuscule but they are rapidly broken down in the gut and liver.
"Babies have the necessary enzymes and are able to metabolise bisphenol A just as effectively as adults."
He added: "Personally I think this is an overreaction, but if satisfactory replacements chemicals are available then this can be done to placate those calling for action, but scientifically it's a retrograde step.
"I would be happy for a baby of mine to be fed from a polycarbonate bottle containing bisphenol A."
And Professor Warren Foster of the department of obstetrics and gynaecology at Canada's McMaster University, said the EU had acted with "extreme caution".
Mimicking
The National Childbirth Trust is a British charity which has campaigned for the ban.
Its chief executive Belinda Phipps told the BBC: "When you put liquids into a bottle - particularly hot liquids or liquids containing fatty liquids - it leaches out of the plastic. And particularly as the bottle gets older and it gets more scratched, more and more leaches out and into the liquid."
Ms Phipps said that when a baby drinks from a bottle which contains BPA, the baby absorbs the leached chemical into its fat.
"It's a chemical that mimics oestrogens, but not in a good way," she said. "It interferes with oestrogens getting into the receptors, and it can have some very unpleasant effects - and animal studies have shown significant effects."
Canada was the first country to declare bisphenol A toxic in October, after it was concluded that the chemical might have harmful effects on humans, as well as the environment and "its biological diversity".
The Canadian decision was strongly opposed by the chemical industry.

Wednesday, December 1, 2010

why water and plastic bottles just don't go together


from a blog Neptune 911!
November 16, 2010 by Charmaine Coimbra
Editor’s Note: This is a reprint of an editorial published 11/13/10 in The Santa Cruz Sentinel
By
Sue Arnold


Three years ago, the California Gray Whale Coalition was created with one specific goal: to relist gray whales under the Endangered Species Act.
In 1994, gray whales were delisted. Although the population at that time appeared healthy and was increasing, five years later a major crash saw over a third of the whales die of starvation. The reasons for the huge collapse were widely debated but a research report co-authored by Burney Le Boeuf, then-interim vice chancellor of UC Santa Cruz, supported the contention that lack of adequate prey caused by a regime shift was the most likely cause.
As specialist feeders, the whales are dependent primarily on benthic amphipods in the Bering and Chukchi seas. These tiny crustacea provide sufficient energy for reproduction and one of the longest migrations by any baleen whale — from the sub-Arctic to the Baja lagoons.
More recently, climate change has had a major impact on the primary feeding grounds. Warming seawater temperatures create conditions that do not favor amphipod reproduction, causing grief to the whales. This season, whale watching organizations and the National Marine Fisheries Service NMFS reported the fourth consecutive year of very low cow/calf counts, many emaciated whales and a large number of whales dying of starvation, their pitifully thin bodies washing ashore along the West Coast.
As a result of lobbying efforts by the coalition, members of the California Assembly and Senate passed a joint resolution that called on Congress to ensure funding for NMFS to undertake badly needed research on gray whales, and, if warranted, to relist the species under the Endangered Species Act. Many West Coast city councils passed similar resolutions.
 Representatives of the coalition have lobbied in Washington, D.C., and recently submitted a comprehensive scientific petition to NMFS requesting the whales be upgraded to depleted status under the Marine Mammal Protection Act. NMFS has 60 days to respond to this petition.








The agency can either agree to conduct a status review or upgrade the whales, currently listed as a stock of least concern, to depleted status, ensuring greater attention to the species — including habitat protection. If NMFS denies the petition, the coalition can legally challenge the decision and will certainly take that action if necessary.
In the early 2000s, the founding group of the coalition organized a scientific workshop using the gray whale as an indicator species of the Bering Sea. The workshop brought together specialist scientists from Mexico, Canada, Australia and the US. Professor Le Boeuf was instrumental in pulling together many of the experts. After two days of discussion, it was clear gray whales were facing major threats from many sources.
Another scientific workshop is urgently needed as the threat of ocean acidification, warming seawater temperatures and melting sea ice impact their feeding grounds. Oil and gas leases also cover these primary habitats, and transient orcas are taking large numbers of calves and juveniles as they migrate back to the sub-Arctic waters.
These whales are our ocean neighbors. The loss of gray whale tourism would have a major impact on many coastal communities that rely on the millions of dollars generated by whale watching and the flow-on effect.
The California Gray Whale Coalition believes raising awareness and public concern over the plight of the whales is an essential step in their protection.
Sue Arnold is CEO of the California Gray Whale Coalition.

Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Do You Drink Coke Or Water? Water or Coke? Your Choice!


~ Read this article containing some very interesting stats:

WATER

#1. 75% of Americans are chronically dehydrated..
(Likely applies to half the world population)


#2. In 37% of Americans, the thirst mechanism is so weak
that it is mistaken for hunger.


#3. Even MILD dehydration will slow down one’s metabolism as 3%.


#4. One glass of water will shut down midnight hunger pangs
for almost 100% of the dieters studied in a University of
Washington study.


#5. Lack of water, the #1 trigger of daytime fatigue.


#6. Preliminary research indicates that 8-10 glasses of
water a day could significantly ease back and joint pain
for up to 80% of sufferers.


#7. A mere 2% drop in body water can trigger fuzzy short-term
memory, trouble with basic math, and difficulty focusing on
the computer screen or on a printed page.


#8.. Drinking 5 glasses of water daily decreases the risk of
colon cancer by 45%, plus it can slash the risk of breast
cancer by 79%., and one is 50% less likely to develop
bladder cancer. Are you drinking the amount of water
you should drink every day?



COKE 

#1. In many states the highway patrol carries
two gallons of Coke in the trunk to remove blood from
the highway after a car accident.


#2. You can put a T-bone steak in a bowl of Coke
and it will be gone in two days.

#3. To clean a toilet: Pour a can of Coca-Cola into the
toilet bowl and let the ‘real thing’ sit for one hour,
then flush clean. The citric acid in Coke removes
stains from vitreous china.


#4. To remove rust spots from chrome car bumpers:
Rub the bumper with a rumpled-up piece of Reynolds
Wrap aluminum foil dipped in Coca-Cola.


#5. To clean corrosion from car battery terminals: Pour
a can of Coca-Cola over the terminals to bubble
away the corrosion.


#6. To loosen a rusted bolt: Apply a cloth soaked in Coca-Cola
to the rusted bolt for several minutes.


#7. To bake a moist ham: Empty a can of Coca-Cola into
the baking pan, wrap the ham in aluminum foil, and bake.
Thirty minutes before ham is finished, remove the foil, allowing the drippings to mix
with the Coke for a sumptuous brown gravy.


#8. To remove grease from clothes: Empty a can of Coke
into the load of greasy clothes, add detergent, and run
through a regular cycle.. The Coca-Cola will help loosen
grease stains. It will also clean road haze from your
windshield.


FOR YOUR INFORMATION:

#1 the active ingredient in Coke is phosphoric acid.
It will dissolve a nail in about four days. Phosphoric
acid also leaches calcium from bones and is a major
contributor to the rising increase of osteoporosis.

#2. To carry Coca-Cola syrup! (the concentrate) the
commercial trucks must use a hazardous Material place
cards reserved for highly corrosive materials.

#3. The distributors of Coke have been using it to clean
engines of the trucks for about 20 years!
Now the question is, would you like a glass of water?

Fancy a Coke or Water?

Friday, November 26, 2010

"Nestle running scared"


 Bottle ban argument doesn’t hold water: NestlĂ©


I read with interest the article written by Tina Depko that appeared in the Nov. edition of the Burlington Post, entitled, Thirsty? Try the tap.
In the piece, Ms. Depko quotes City of Burlington diversion co-ordinator Sean Kenney about a number of matters related to bottled water that require correction.
Mr. Kenney states that Burlington’s decision to ban the sale of bottled water in its facilities will divert thousands of single-use water bottles from landfill and reduce greenhouse gas emissions created through manufacturing and transporting single-use water bottles.
He further states that about 60 per cent of these bottles are being diverted from landfill. Beyond the fact that Stewardship Ontario reports that the diversion rate in Halton Region for plastic beverage containers is about 82 per cent, a 2009 City of Vancouver report put this entire matter in proper perspective when staff there wrote that, “The environmental costs of bottled water include the effects of bulk water removal, the life cycle of the bottles and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation of the beverage. With the exception of bulk water removal, these costs are associated with any packaged beverage. The availability of bottled water in civic facilities is limited and represents only a tiny fraction of the market. It is unlikely that its elimination will have a significant impact in terms of reducing solid waste and greenhouse gases.”
Mr. Kenney’s lament that the diversion rate for plastic water bottles is less than 10 per cent in city facilities could have been dealt with at no cost to Burlington taxpayers had council accepted the Canadian beverage industry’s offer last year to host a pilot public spaces recycling program. Similar industry-led pilots in Manitoba, Quebec, Sarnia, Niagara Region and Halifax have yielded diversion rates well above 80 per cent, on average, and as high as 97 per cent.
Mr. Kenney’s statement that bans on bottled water are “happening all over the place” is incorrect.
Burlington is among just 25 municipalities in Canada that have banned the sale of bottled water in their facilities over the last five years. Over the last three years, 102 local governments across the country have formally rejected resolutions to ban the sale of bottled water in their facilities. Most telling, however, is the fact that several thousand local jurisdictions across Canada have determined that there are more important matters to attend to than considering bans on bottled water, like repairing aging water and sewer infrastructure, maintaining and/or improving local service delivery and keeping taxes low.
Most astonishing is Mr. Kenney’s statement that, “At Beachway Park, we’re still going to sell bottled water because people do need to drink water, especially in hot weather.”
On this point, we agree. But it begs the question, don’t Burlington residents need to drink water at any other city facilities, especially in hot weather?
John B. Challinor II,  NestlĂ© Waters Canada
Editor’s note: The Polaris Institute in Ottawa told the Post Tuesday that there are 81 municipalities in Canada that have banned the sale of bottled water at their facilities. 

Wednesday, November 24, 2010

"Get them while they are young - baby's bottled water for $3.50"


Talk about easy feeding on-the-go! This is one of those products that seems like a no brainer. We can't believe this wasn't around ages ago. Luckily for new moms and dads, it's available now. Nourish baby and toddler bottles are purified spring water bottled two ways, formula-ready for baby and spill-proof with a sippy top for your toddler. We're not the only ones that think this product is pretty cool. Celeb moms and dads including Minnie Driver, Tiffany ThiessenNicole Sullivan, and Joey Lawrence don't leave home without it.
Nourish Baby is a patented, ready-to-serve bottle for babies complete with 8 oz purified spring water, volume markings for mixing formula and a baby nipple top - perfect for families on the go and travel. Just add formula, shake, serve and reuse or recycle. Nourish Toddler is a patented, spill-proof bottled water complete with 10 oz purified spring water and a spill-proof sippy top so toddlers and preschoolers can enjoy their independence while mom/dad enjoys smiles instead of spills on the kids, on them, in the car... No more ruining a fun day out with the kids by fighting with a toddler over sharing a beverage or by spilling formula everywhere! Finally a healthy alternative to sticky/sugary juice boxes or flavored milks that helps establish a healthy habit of drinking water.
Nourish products are 100% BPA Free, Phthalate Free, made in the USA, and both recyclable and reusable. So when traveling or engaging in outdoor activities they can be recycled and you can open a clean bottle/clean water rather than trying to wash bottles and sippy cups in public sinks, but they can be washed and reused if you have a trusted location to safely clean them - the best of both worlds for our children and for our world.
Nourish launched just a few months ago and is available at airports, sports arenas, entertainment venues (water parks, botanical gardens...), hotels/resorts, baby boutiques and specialty food stores. Nourish was just awarded a MAX Award for the most innovative new product in Georgia!
This company believes in giving back. The Nourish Haiti Program was launched a few months ago at the request of a customer and Nourish has now donated along with our customers over 5000 bottles to babies and toddlers in Haiti, as Nourish is perfect in disaster relief situations or any time a child lacks access to clean water and clean bottles.
Nourish is available for purchase online for $3.50 per bottle.

Thursday, November 18, 2010

Fiji military battling Fiji Water


~ A close associate of Fiji’s military strongman has revealed that he quit as defence minister yesterday because the regime is targeting the ownership of one of the country’s most successful exports, Fiji Water.
Epeli Ganilau quit yesterday while the self-described prime minister, Voreqe Bainimarama, is in China on undefined business.
Rumours have grown that the military wanted to take over Fiji Water, which is the top selling bottled water in the United States and likely to globally over take French bottled water.
It is privately owned by Los Angeles billionaires Stewart and Lynda Rae Resnick who also own Teleflora and the Franklin Mint.
Two years ago the military government tried to put a 20 cent per litre royalty on Fiji Water, but yielded to pressure from the company when they said they would pull out if taxed.
Fiji Water earns around US$150 million a year in sales and makes up 20 percent of Fiji exports and 3  per cent of its gross domestic product.
In martial law-controlled Fiji, where the media is heavily censored, rumours have grown that the military government wants to take over Fiji Water and force it into local ownership, as it did with the once Rupert Murdoch-owned Fiji Times.
The military appointed attorney-general Aiyaz Sayed-Khaiyum was said to have ordered the deportation of Fiji Water’s CEO, David Roth.
Ganilau, who preceded Bainimarama as military commander, was a close supporter of the 2006 coup which ended Fiji’s democracy. He announced his resignation as defence minister yesterday, leaving the office within hours.
This morning he told the FijiLive website that Fiji Water was behind the resignation.
“We had some differences over the David Roth issue,” he said, adding he had resigned willingly.
He said he did not agree with discussions he had with the regime concerning Roth. 
“I sent my resignation through email but it has not been acknowledged by the PM as yet.”

Monday, November 15, 2010

Liquid Gold


 Sometimes you've got to admire their sheer audacity.
Talk about selling ice to eskimos.
We’re referring to those cunning folk flogging us all that bottled water.
Think about it. You can get perfectly healthy stuff straight from the tap for almost nothing, yet millions of Australians are forking out more than $3 a litre for the bottled variety, double the price of petrol.
Apparently, we spent more than half a billion dollars on bottled water last year.
The question is, just what do we think we're buying in those fancy bottles?

Wednesday, November 10, 2010

The Most Expensive Tap Water on Earth?


 Bottled water comes only from pristine streams, right? Not necessarily.

In fact, nearly half of all bottled water is reprocessed tap water, sold at prices up to 3,000 times higher than consumers pay for tap water. And even before the additional processing, the water meets federal water-quality standards.

From CBS news

Monday, November 8, 2010

Bottled Water: 10 Shockers "They" don't want you to know


American tap water? It's considered some of the safest in the world. Yet countless Americans shun the stuff that flows from faucets and fountains and buy bottled water instead.

What's really in the stuff and why does it cost 3,000 times more than tap?

Here Dr. Peter Gleick, the author of "Bottled and Sold: 
The Story Behind Our Obsession with Bottled Water," shares 10 of the most shocking facts about bottled water.

from CBS news

Friday, November 5, 2010

It takes a lot of oil to make water bottles


~ It takes the equivalent of 17 million barrels of oil just to make the plastic bottles for our bottled water consumption in the U.S., says Dr. Gleick, who worries that our demand for bottled water puts pressure on our energy resources and contributes to our dependence on foreign oil.

(a report from CBS news)

Monday, November 1, 2010

Uni weighs bottled water ban

 from The Canberra Times
28 Oct, 2010 09:31 AM

The University of Canberra is considering banning the sale of bottled water, which could be a $100,000 loss for campus retailers.

The move had some of the university's 8000-plus students worried the Bundanoon-style ban to become Australia's first bottled water-free campus may increase the sale of unhealthier soft drinks.

University management has already decided to install cold water bubblers and will now consider the ban suggested by a group of students. The bubblers will allow students to fill up re-usable plastic bottles as opposed to buying fresh ones.

The ban is a continuation of the ACT's war on environmentally unfriendly plastic, with the territory Government expected today to succeed in the Legislative Assembly to ban plastic shopping bags.
Between 50,000 and 60,000 plastic bottles of water are sold at the University of Canberra every year. The University of Canberra Student Association broadly supports the ban but has reservations about some of the details.
For more on this story, including comments that revellers at university festivals should still be able to buy water, and that the move may lead to the sale of more soft drinks, see the print edition of today's Canberra Times.

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Bottled water – is it the new eco-disaster?

 Victorians are fortunate to have access to high quality tap water. However, many people in Victoria still consume bottled water in preference to tap water believing that it tastes better and has health benefits. Read the following newspaper article to get the low down on how the consumption of bottled water in Australia, and the World, is fast becoming a costly habit on our wallets and on our environment.

Bottled water the 'new eco-disaster'

By Catharine Munro, The Age, February 26, 2006
Australians' love affair with bottled water has left environmentalists worried about the toll on the planet.
With 65 per cent of plastic drink bottles ending up in landfill, they are calling for better recycling services.
The popularity of bottled water is rising at a rate of 10 per cent a year in Australia.
About 550 million litres were consumed in 2004-05, according to the Australian Beverage Council, with most purchases being made in addition to soft drinks, rather than replacing them.
The plastic water bottles are becoming a major environmental hazard. They suck up valuable fuels to make.
They also create mountains of rubbish when they are thrown away.
Environmental scientist Tim Grant said it was "counter-intuitive" that bottled water was such a successful product. "People pay $2.50 for something that's free," he said.
A recent report by the Washington-based Earth Policy Institute said global consumption of bottled water rose 57 per cent from 1999 to 2004 to 154 billion litres. Much of the growth came from countries such as Australia, where most tap water is just as high a quality as anything that can be bought.
Packaging worldwide required 2.7 million tonnes of plastic each year, the report's author, Emily Arnold, said.
The manufacture of bottles used up 1.5 million barrels of crude oil in the US because the plastic is made from the fossil fuel, Ms Arnold said.
"In contrast to tap water, which is distributed through an energy-efficient infrastructure, transporting bottled water long distances involves burning massive quantities of fossil fuels," she said.
In Australia, the energy cost of buying water instead of drawing it from a tap was comparable to driving a car, said Mr Grant, who is the assistant director of design at RMIT University.
While driving a car for one kilometre used four megajoules of energy, drinking a 600-millilitre bottle of water used 1.5 megajoules, when the transport costs were included.
By contrast, drinking water out of a tap used only 0.2 megajoules, Mr Grant said. And when they are no longer wanted, water bottles were taking up space in landfill sites.
While Australians are enthusiastic recyclers at home, they don't get the opportunity with bottled water because it's usually bought when people are out at the movies, at the beach or shopping.
"Australia's recycling system does not collect away-from-home waste," Total Environment Centre director Jeff Angel said.
Of the 118,000 tonnes of drink bottle plastic consumed every year, only 35 per cent of it was recycled, he said.
People should bring their own water containers.
"It's like shopping bags, it's the same problem," Mr Angel said.
"There's an argument for people putting their own tap water into containers."
In South Australia, where consumers can redeem a deposit for drink containers, the bottles made up less than 10 per cent of the state's rubbish, compared with 13.4 per cent nationally.
Drink bottles also take up more space than other waste, comprising 38 per cent of total volume of litter. They appear mostly in parks and floating on the waterfront, according to statistics from Clean Up Australia. They are deadly for thirsty wildlife, which get trapped inside containers.
"They are attractive, they catch the light and they are shiny, so little animals see them and get in," Clean Up Australia spokeswoman Therrie-Ann Johnson said.
Consumers needed deposit schemes to encourage them not to throw away their bottles, Ms Johnson said. The not-for-profit organisation was in talks with private companies to establish public recycling at shopping centres.
However, ensuring a recycling bin at public locations was difficult because beaches, parks and shopping centres were run by a wide range of groups, from listed companies to municipal councils.
Information sourced from BOTTLED WATER: Pouring resources down the drain by Emily Arnold Feb 2006. Earth Policy Institute -www.earthpolicy.org.

Questions

  1. How much bottled water was consumed by Australians in 2004-05?
  2. What percentage of all plastic drink bottles end up in landfill in Australia?
  3. If 118,000 tonnes of plastic bottles are consumed every year what weight of plastic bottles end up in landfill?
  4. Assume that most bottled water (550million litres) consumed in Australia is sold in 600ml plastic bottles. Based on this assumption approximately 916 million plastic bottles potentially could be recycled in Australia each year. On current figures 65 per cent of all plastic drink bottles end up in landfill. Based on these figures how many bottled water bottles are likely to go to landfill each year?
  5. Consumption of bottled water is rising by 10 per cent each year in Australia. On these predictions how much bottled water is likely to be consumed in Australia by 2010? How many bottles to landfill will that mean?
  6. What are plastic drink bottles made out of?
  7. According to this article why are bottled water bottles recycled less than other recyclable items?
  8. How could Australia reduce the number of plastic bottles that go to landfill each year?
  9. Why is bottled water an environmental hazard compared to water obtained from the tap? Think of energy use, resource use and waste disposal.
  10. Draw a life cycle diagram for bottled water.
  11. Apart from the environmental problems that bottled water causes it is also very expensive. Tap water costs 75 cents for 1000 litres while bottled water is sold at $2,400 per 1000 litres! (assuming $1.50 for a 600 mlbottle).
    • Calculate how much a litre of tap water costs.
    • Calculate how much a litre of bottled water costs.
    • If you drank 2 litres of tap water instead of 2 litres of bottled water how much money would you save?
    • Calculate the dollar ($) saving for your class, then your school population, if everyone brought tap water from home in their own reuseable water bottle instead of buying bottled water at the next sporting event.
    • How many plastic water bottles would be saved?
  12. After reading the article and answering the questions what do you think about bottled water?
  13. Design a poster to promote drinking tap water from a reusable container.